A trust is a legal entity that holds title to and manages assets for an intended beneficiary. A Living trust is distinguishable from other trusts in that you, as the grantor, can make changes to the trust or revoke it entirely during your lifetime. You can also act as the initial trustee of your living trust. Living trusts are most often used to avoid the probate process that comes along with passing property through a will. Because assets are owned by the trust, and not by you, they pass by the terms of the trust upon your death, making probate unnecessary. Trusts are complicated documents and estate planning attorneys can help you navigate through the legal nuances. In order to pass through the trust and avoid probate, assets must be re-titled into the name of the trust. For instance, if you want to place your home in the trust, you must change the deed so that the trust is named as owner. Once the deed is changed, it should be recorded with the registrar of deeds, and is subject to the same fees as any real estate transaction. These fees vary by state. You can check with your local registrar of deeds for your state’s fees associated with a deed transfer. Whether or not you choose to hire an attorney to draft your living trust, you will be responsible for the expense of titling assets to the trust. A living trust is an estate planning document created during one’s lifetime. A revocable living trust goes into effect during one’s lifetime and provides a way to manage one’s assets during his/her lifetime and to dispose of assets after they pass away. There are many reasons a living trust is preferable to a last will and testament. For example, when you create a living trust, you can avoid the time and expense associated with probate. While the estate’s assets are in probate, they may be frozen – a living trust avoids this as well. Individuals also choose to make a living trust to minimize tax consequences and for privacy concerns.
Types of Trusts In Utah
A trust is a legal document that can be created during a person’s lifetime and survive the person’s death. A trust can also be created by a will and formed after death. Common types of trusts are outlined in this article. Once assets are put into the trust they belong to the trust itself (such as a bank account), not the trustee (person). They remain subject to the rules and instructions of the trust contract. In essence, a trust is a right to money or property, which is held in a “fiduciary” relationship by one person or bank for the benefit of another. The trustee is the one who holds title to the trust property, and the beneficiary is the person who receives the benefits of the trust. While there are a number of different types of trusts, the basic types are revocable and irrevocable.
Revocable trusts are created during the lifetime of the trust-maker and can be altered, changed, modified or revoked entirely. Often called a living trust, these are trusts in which the trust-maker:
• Transfers the title of a property to a trust
• Serves as the initial trustee
• Has the ability to remove the property from the trust during his or her lifetime.
Revocable trusts are extremely helpful in avoiding probate. If ownership of assets is transferred to a revocable trust during the lifetime of the trust-maker so that it is owned by the trust at the time of the trust-maker’s death, the assets will not be subject to probate. Although useful to avoid probate, a revocable trust is not an asset protection technique as assets transferred to the trust during the trust-maker’s lifetime will remain available to the trust-maker’s creditors. It does make it more somewhat more difficult for creditors to access these assets since the creditor must petition a court for an order to enable the creditor to get to the assets held in the trust. Typically, a revocable trust evolves into an irrevocable trust upon the death of the trust-maker.
An irrevocable trust is one that cannot be altered, changed, modified or revoked after its creation. Once a property is transferred to an irrevocable trust, no one, including the trust maker, can take the property out of the trust. It is possible to purchase survivorship life insurance, the benefits of which can be held by an irrevocable trust. This type of survivorship life insurance can be used for estate tax planning purposes in large estates, however, survivorship life insurance held in an irrevocable trust can have serious negative consequences.
Asset Protection Trust
An asset protection trust is a type of trust that is designed to protect a person’s assets from claims of future creditors. These types of trusts are often set up in countries outside of the United States, although the assets do not always need to be transferred to the foreign jurisdiction. The purpose of an asset protection trust is to insulate assets from creditor attack. These trusts are normally structured so that they are irrevocable for a term of years and so that the trust-maker is not a current beneficiary. An asset protection trust is normally structured so that the undistributed assets of the trust are returned to the trust-maker upon the termination of the trust provided there is no current risk of creditor attack, thus permitting the trust-maker to regain complete control over the formerly protected assets.
Charitable trusts are trusts which benefit a particular charity or the public in general. Typically charitable trusts are established as part of an estate plan to lower or avoid the imposition of estate and gift tax. A charitable remainder trust (CRT) funded during the grantor’s lifetime can be a financial planning tool, providing the trust-maker with valuable lifetime benefits. In addition to the financial benefits, there is the intangible benefit of rewarding the trust-maker’s altruism as charities usually immediately honor the donors who have named the charity as the beneficiary of a CRT.
A constructive trust is an implied trust. An implied trust is established by a court and is determined by certain facts and circumstances. The court may decide that, even though there was never a formal declaration of a trust, there was an intention on the part of the property owner that the property is used for a particular purpose or go to a particular person. While a person may take legal title to a property, equitable considerations sometimes require that the equitable title of such property really belongs to someone else.
Special Needs Trust
A special needs trust is one that is set up for a person who receives government benefits so as not to disqualify the beneficiary from such government benefits. This is completely legal and permitted under the Social Security rules provided that the disabled beneficiary cannot control the amount or the frequency of trust distributions and cannot revoke the trust. Ordinarily, when a person is receiving government benefits, an inheritance or receipt of a gift could reduce or eliminate the person’s eligibility for such benefits. By establishing a trust, which provides for luxuries or other benefits which otherwise could not be obtained by the beneficiary, the beneficiary can obtain the benefits from the trust without defeating his or her eligibility for government benefits. Usually, a special needs trust has a provision that terminates the trust in the event that it could be used to make the beneficiary ineligible for government benefits. Special needs have a specific legal definition and are defined as the requisites for maintaining the comfort and happiness of a disabled person when such requisites are not being provided by any public or private agency. Special needs can include medical and dental expenses, equipment, education, treatment, rehabilitation, eyeglasses, transportation (including vehicle purchase), maintenance, insurance (including payment of premiums of insurance on the life of the beneficiary), essential dietary needs, spending money, electronic and computer equipment, vacations, athletic contests, movies, trips, money with which to purchase gifts, payments for a companion, and other items to enhance self-esteem. The list is quite extensive. Parents of a disabled child can establish a special needs trust as part of their general estate plan and not worry that their child will be prevented from receiving benefits when they are not there to care for the child. Disabled persons who expect an inheritance or other large sum of money may establish a special needs trust themselves, provided that another person or entity is named as trustee.
A trust that is established for a beneficiary that does not allow the beneficiary to sell or pledge away interests in the trust is known as a spendthrift trust. It is protected from the beneficiaries’ creditors, until such time as the trust property is distributed out of the trust and given to the beneficiaries.
Tax By-Pass Trust
A tax by-pass trust is a type of trust that is created to allow one spouse to leave money to the other while limiting the amount of federal estate tax that would be payable on the death of the second spouse. While assets can pass to a spouse tax-free, when the surviving spouse dies, the remaining assets over and above the exempt limit would be taxable to the children of the couple, potentially at a rate of 55 percent. A tax by-pass trust avoids this situation and saves the children perhaps hundreds of thousands of dollars in federal taxes, depending upon the value of the estate.
A Totten trust is one that is created during the lifetime of the grantor by depositing money into an account at a financial institution in his or her name as the trustee for another. This is a type of revocable trust in which the gift is not completed until the grantor’s death or an unequivocal act reflecting the gift during the grantor’s lifetime. An individual or an entity can be named as the beneficiary. Upon death, Totten trust assets avoid probate. A Totten trust is used primarily with accounts and securities in financial institutions such as savings accounts, bank accounts, and certificates of deposit. A Totten trust cannot be used with real property. It provides a safer method to pass assets on to family than using joint ownership. To create a Totten trust, the title on the account should include identifying language, such as “In Trust For,” “Payable on Death To,” “As Trustee For,” or the identifying initials for each, “IFF,” “POD,” “ATF.” If this language is not included, the beneficiary may not be identifiable. A Totten trust has been called a “poor man’s” trust because a written trust document is typically not involved and it often costs the trust maker nothing to establish
How to Set Up a Trust
• Creating the Trust Agreement: The grantor creates a trust agreement, which is a legal document that designates the grantor, the trustee, and the beneficiaries, and outlines how the trust assets are to be managed and distributed. Part of this step is deciding who you want to name as beneficiaries, how you want the trust income and assets distributed to them, and who you want to name as trustee (or trustees).
• Funding the Trust: The second step, called funding the trust, is for the grantor to transfer assets to the trust. A trust agreement is worthless unless the trust is funded. How this is done depends upon the nature of the property:
• Real estate: To transfer real estate, the grantor executes a deed that transfers the title to the property to the trust.
• Personal property with a title document: Some assets, such motor vehicles, boats, RVs, airplanes, and mobile homes (also known as modular or manufactured homes) have some type of title document, which can be transferred to the trust. This can also be done with stocks and bonds.
• Other personal property: All other property without a title document can be transferred by simply writing a description of the property on a piece of paper (such as “all of my household goods,” or “my coin collection”), and making a note that it is being transferred to the trust.
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